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The Vasil Hard Fork — From a dApp Builder’s Perspective




The Vasil Hard Fork — From a dApp Builder’s Perspective

Cardano, like any other blockchain, is constantly evolving, and on-chain evolution often happens with a hard fork to enact new or updated functionality.

On Cardano, these events come a few times a year, and are often named after important figures. The next one of these, named the “Vasil hard fork,” is almost here and is hotly anticipated by many. This significant step introduces a range of new features that will enhance Cardano’s performance, throughput and scalability. In turn, exchanges and DApps interacting with — or built on top of — the blockchain will also be affected, as some of the changes will not be backward-compatible.

This post is structured in four parts: background information about hard forks (and the hard fork combinator, the unique technology that Cardano uses during hard fork events), what’s included in the Vasil update, what developers and other chains should expect, and the options open to the SundaeSwap community following the implementation of Vasil.

There are many definitions floating out there, but the simplest is: a hard fork is a radical change to a blockchain’s protocol that often (but not always) results in the creation of two branches (‘forks’), essentially two blockchains. During a hard fork event, some transactions that would have been valid before the fork may become invalid on the upgraded fork. Because of this, a hard fork requires that all network nodes upgrade to the new protocol rules. These changes may be radical, but hard forks are relatively common.

A blockchain can undergo multiple hard forks. For example, Bitcoin has had four major hard fork events: Segregated Witness (SegWit), Bitcoin Classic, Bitcoin Cash, and Bitcoin Gold (2015 for SegWit, 2016 for Classic, and 2017 for Cash and Gold), plus a myriad of other smaller forks.

Ethereum meanwhile has also undergone multiple hard forks. Notably, one of Ethereum’s major forking events was sparked by the now infamous 2016 DAO hack, resulting in a network split. The fork was done, somewhat controversially, to return the stolen ether (all $60 million of it) to its owners. This was done by rolling back the Ethereum chain, which effectively created a new fork: Ethereum Classic. Those who refused to accept the hard fork (and the return of the funds to their owners) stuck to Classic. Everyone else moved on to the Ethereum chain that remains one of the major crypto players to this day.

Hard fork events are often deemed ‘traumatic,’ in the sense that they cause significant disruption to chain activity. Sometimes, the network must be stopped for a time altogether to implement the new code base. Nodes that are not upgraded quickly enough will reject the new rules; DApps might experience unexpected behavior or stop working altogether; and so on. Regardless of what triggered the fork, whether it was planned (as Vasil is), or whether it occurred in response to adversarial behavior (such as the DAO hack), a hard fork is no small task. They require very careful planning, testing and implementation.

One core principle held by Cardano’s developers is in the importance of ‘smooth’ code updates. So they came up with an ingenious way of ‘softening’ the impact of hard forks on their chain and eliminating the ‘trauma’ associated with these on-chain events: the hard fork combinator (HFC). This piece of technology does exactly what it says on the tin: it combines two protocols into one single protocol. Cardano engineers refer to this as “sequential combination.” In practice, following the forking event, the chain runs the original protocol for a time before switching over to the updated protocol.

Herein lies the uniqueness of the HFC. Since block production does not stop, there is no break on the chain, leading to a smooth and graceful transition between protocols. As an analogy, think of the evolution of the Cardano blockchain as a relay race, with every hard fork representing the point when one runner hands the baton over to the next one. And for a few moments, both run in perfect synchrony, to ensure the baton handover goes smoothly. Then, the relay runner takes off. On Cardano, these events happen a few times a year, and so are often given specific names. The next one, happening soon, is the “Vasil” hard fork.

Vasil has been running on a testnet since 20:20 UTC on July 4. The testnet deployment enables two things: the monitoring of on-chain code behavior, and preparation for the final integration process. It gives project developers, stake pool operators (SPOs), and exchanges time to test their code on the new fork ahead of the planned mainnet deployment on July 29th.

Vasil represents a very significant update for Cardano. According to the official blog post, this update will bring increased functionality, performance, scalability and interoperability to Cardano through several mechanisms, including diffusion pipelining and four Cardano Improvement Proposals (CIPs), CIP-31, CIP-32, CIP-33 and CIP-40. We’ll explain each of these below.

Diffusion pipelining improves block propagation times, thus enabling higher throughput. Essentially, pipelining streamlines the way in which blocks are validated and propagated — the goal being the propagation of a block across the network well within five seconds of its creation. Pipelining achieves this by allowing a block to be propagated before full validation has occurred.

Reference inputs (CIP-31) — A datum is simply a piece of information. In the extended unspent transaction output (eEUTXO) model that Cardano uses, each output of a transaction carries (the hash of) some datum. Pre-Vasil, this meant that for a script to “see” a datum, it had to be spent as one of the inputs to the transaction. This in turn only allowed one transaction to use that datum at a time. The entire process was very inefficient.

The reference inputs feature enables looking at the information contained within an unspent output without having to actually spend it. This allows many transactions to read and utilize this data in parallel.

This also simplifies some transactions, as the dApp doesn’t have to worry about “recreating” the datum correctly in each transaction.

Inline datums (CIP-32) — The inline datum feature allows the contents of a datum to be stored directly on the output, rather than just the hash. This greatly simplifies the job of off-chain code, since it no longer needs to independently store the datum that correctly hashes to the output it needs to spend.

Reference scripts (CIP-33) — The size of a script presents certain problems. Passing a whole script inside each transaction consumes a huge portion of an already tight budget that a dApp developer must adhere to, inflates the chain with redundant data, painfully limits overall chain throughput, and incurs higher (and equally unnecessary) transaction fees. The size of a transaction can be limited to protect the chain, but this limits what dApp developers can achieve, and impacts the Cardano end user experience.

Reference scripts resolve these issues by attaching a script directly to an output (much like a datum), and referencing that script from a separate transaction. This enables transactions to look up (or ‘reference’) those scripts during validation, as opposed to having the transaction pass entire scripts time and time again.

Reference scripts allow the ability to fit more of a previously printed script into a future block.

The inclusion of reference scripts means that transactions using reference scripts carry less data, which makes these transactions smaller. This, in turn, means that dApp developers can implement more features, transactions are quicker to process, and thus cheaper. This significantly reduces transaction fees for the user.

Reference scripts will allow dDApps to pay the on-chain storage cost once and reuse it.

Collateral outputs (CIP-40) — Submitting a Plutus transaction requires collateral (set at 150% of the transaction fee), to avoid possible Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks. Pre-Vasil, if a malicious or buggy dApp or wallet were to submit a transaction that failed phase-2 validation (for more on phase-1 vs phase-2 validation, see this great article), a user would lose all funds stored in the collateral UTXO. Those funds would go towards the ‘fee pot’, compensating the SPO and delegators that wasted resources checking an invalid transaction.

Post-Vasil, developers will be able to specify an address to receive the collateral change, so even if the transaction fails validation, only the collateral amount will be taken, and the remaining funds are sent to the specified change address.

In this image, different colored coins represent native tokens.

Verifiable Random Function (VRF) process enhancement — Pre-Vasil, block validation required two VRF functions per network hop. Following the update, block validation will require only one VRF function, which will result in faster validation.

The Vasil update includes three specific enhancements to Plutus v1 scripts, which, for the sake of brevity, we’ll only briefly list here:

  • Plutus evaluator speed improvements
  • Updated cost model parameters
  • Datums and redeemers of other inputs

Vasil — named in honor of the late Vasil St. Dabov, a Cardano ambassador who passed away in 2021 — is a big deal for Cardano, due to the sheer scope and impact of the new features and upgrades being introduced. In the words of IOG, Vasil is the most significant network upgrade since the deployment of staking via Shelley.

Following the update, Cardano will become more scalable and flexible for developers to create newer and better DApps to suit more use cases.

One common question is how the hard fork and the new features it brings will impact already deployed dApps. The simple answer is that it won’t: the Cardano blockchain remains backwards compatible, and can still execute these transactions as before.

The more nuanced answer is, of course, also the more interesting. First, while existing contracts will continue to work, they will be unable to make use of the new features: any transaction using a reference script or an inline datum, for example, must only include funds locked by a Plutus V2 script. This means that there’s no risk that these new features change the security guarantees of the old contracts, but also means that dApp developers will have to change their contracts to benefit. We anticipate this will likely require a new audit, for example.

Additionally, while on-chain code is unaffected, many dApps work hand-in-hand with “off-chain” systems. These systems do things like construct transactions, or roll-up statistics about the global state of the dApp. The off-chain code of a dApp needs to be updated to recognize and correctly interpret the new post-hard-fork transaction formats. Depending on the dApp, this can be simple, or very complex, and often there are multiple organizations who have to coordinate. At SundaeSwap, we’ve been hard at work on this, and thought it might be interesting to outline some of this work and give a glimpse into what each dApp developer and ecosystem builder has likely been up to.

As mentioned above, on-chain contracts (the most security-sensitive area of the dApp) are unaffected. Here is a sampling of some of the off-chain systems that have needed updating. We’ve had to:

  • Update “Ogmigo”, our Go client library for reading from Ogmios to recognize the newly added fields
  • Update our transaction construction to create valid post-Vasil transactions, without impacting the script compilation and changing the script hashes
  • Update the scooper software to work around a performance degradation in the cardano-node around querying UTXOs
  • Update many places where we look up the value of the input to a transaction, which now may point to a collateral output
  • Conduct a general review of all code related to statistics roll-up and yield farming, to identify places where our assumptions may now be violated
  • Thoroughly test all of these changes

Additionally, while the currently deployed contracts can’t take advantage of the savings and scalability improvements, we were already working on a new version of the contracts. It’s still early stage, but this work includes some dramatic improvements and new ideas we’ve identified since our launch, and is designed to take full advantage of the Vasil features once they are finished, fully audited and released. We’ll have more details on that when we’re further along in the development lifecycle.

The Vasil hard fork will bring a diverse set of improvements to our nascent ecosystem. This will be the first Cardano hard fork performed in collaboration with a diverse set of DeFi partners, and is therefore a key milestone in demonstrating Cardano’s unique ability to evolve and innovate. We’re ecstatic to be a part of it, and proud to be a part of the careful, methodical approach that reflects our shared Cardano ethos.

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Disclaimer: Cardano Feed is a Decentralized News Aggregator that enables journalists, influencers, editors, publishers, websites and community members to share news about the Cardano Ecosystem. User must always do their own research and none of those articles are financial advices. The content is for informational purposes only and does not necessarily reflect our opinion.

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PrivaCrip to Power a Blockchain Network That Could Follow Cardano & XRP




PrivaCrip to Power a Blockchain Network That Could Follow Cardano & XRP




When the first decentralised blockchain was popularised in 2008 by Satoshi Nakamoto, the door was open for people across the globe to transact more securely and seamlessly. Many blockchain networks have been built and powered by native crypto tokens, including PrivaCrip (PRCR).

Native tokens exist for several reasons. Aside from acting as digital currencies, they perform various functions. Helping blockchains improve data traceability, security, transparency, and trustworthiness shared throughout the network. They also assist in reducing costs through their ever-evolving efficient methods.

Cardano (ADA) and Ripple (XRP) are among the best blockchain-based cryptos that this article will discuss. We will also look at how PrivaCrip (PRCR) will power a blockchain network set to launch into the crypto space.

Top Tier Crypto Makes its Mark – Cardano (ADA)

Cardano (ADA) has been around in the crypto space since 2017. The Proof-of-Stake (PoS), Ouroborous Cardano (ADA), was established using a research-based methodology.

Research is the backbone of Cardano (ADA) and is integral to its success in the cryptocurrency market. Cardano (ADA) uses an evidence-driven mechanism and peer-reviewed research to run its ecosystem to drive its evolution.




Among many things, Cardano (ADA) helps establish DeFi products and provides a suite of financial solutions. Crypto enthusiasts can stake Cardano (ADA) for a chance to earn rewards for their holdings.

With 2022 providing challenges in cryptocurrencies across the globe, Cardano (ADA) is one of the few cryptos to see a surge in on-chain trading volume this year. CoinMarketCap lists Cardano (ADA) as the 7th largest crypto by market capitalization at the time of writing.

Making Waves – Ripple (XRP)

Launched in 2012, Ripple (XRP) is a leading provider of crypto solutions for businesses. Ripple (XRP) provides developers with a solid open-source foundation for executing demanding projects. It is fast, energy-efficient, cost-effective, and reliable.

The solutions provided by Ripple (XRP) enable developers to solve inefficiencies, including asset tokenization and remittance. Therefore, individuals and businesses may apply Ripple (XRP) for DeFi, payments, tokenization, and more.

Crypto enthusiasts with a long-term focus may find Ripple (XRP) a valuable investing tool. Token holders can use Ripple (XRP) for staking its mainnet platform for a chance to grow their earnings and maximise profit.

At the time of writing, it ranks number 6 on CoinMarketCap, making it a cryptocurrency to buy now.

The New Face Of Privacy – PrivaCrip (PRCR)

The soon-to-launch PrivaCrip (PRCR) is a cryptocurrency built for Web3 data privacy. It will allow users to develop and use permissionless and privacy-preserving applications. This unique feature of PrivaCrip (PRCR) secures apps, protects users, and fosters the creation of many new Web3 uses.

PrivaCrip (PRCR) will drive a blockchain that creates a more empowering and inclusive internet. It will enable developers to build secure dApps using private contracts based on original privacy research (OPR) to revolutionise Web3.

PrivaCrip (PRCR) will begin pre-sale soon and has an initial token price of 0.10 USD. According to the whitepaper, there will be a total supply of 190 million tokens, of which 40% of the total supply will go to the pre-sale.

Crypto enthusiasts who purchase PrivaCrip (PRCR) during the pre-sale will receive the most significant long-term rewards and bonuses. Those who buy with Bitcoin (BTC) will receive a 10% bonus. Also, those using Ethereum (ETH) to purchase will receive 15% of the total PrivaCrip (PRCR) they purchase as a bonus.

10% of PrivaCrip’s (PRCR) total supply is up for distribution as staking rewards, meaning that token holders who stake will receive rewards for their contribution to the crypto’s advancement.

The Bottomline 

Blockchain networks are continuously evolving, and so are the crypto tokens that power them. Cardano (ADA) and Ripple (XRP) have contributed tremendously to the success of their blockchain networks, gathering mass appeal.

PrivaCrip (PRCR), for its part, will drive a security-enabled blockchain and scalability in private DeFi, empower data tokenization, and bring together a fast-growing community. Acting on its promise, it has the potential to become the next big mover in cryptocurrency.

For more on PrivaCrip (PRCR), check below:





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Cardano (ADA) Withdrawal Fees Waved by Bitrue Exchange




Cardano Reaches “Important Milestone” on Road to Vasil Upgrade

Alex Dovbnya

Singapore-based cryptocurrency exchange made Cardano one of its base trading pairs earlier this year

Singapore-based cryptocurrency exchange Bitrue announced that it had temporarily waived withdrawal fees for the Cardano (ADA) cryptocurrency.

The trading platform says that the move is meant to celebrate the support it received from the community behind the cryptocurrency.

Users will be able to withdraw ADA without paying any fees until mid-September.

Bitrue has stressed that it wants users to have “as much choice as possible” when it comes to custody options. Those who want to hold their ADA tokens will not be able to do so without paying an additional commission.

At the same time, Bitrue has touted its “Power Piggy” yield-farm investment program for those who want to earn passive income with ADA.

As reported by U.Today, Bitrue introduced the token as its base currency back in February.

In June 2021, it also became the first cryptocurrency trading platform to add support for Cardano-based native tokens.

Last month, Bitrue also announced a staking initiative with the ADA cryptocurrency. It decided to contribute a million tokens to some of the top Cardano staking pools in an effort to boost the level of decentralization.

Earlier this year, SundaeSwap (SUNDAE), the native token of the SundaeSwap exchange, also became available on Bitrue.

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WingRiders Losses 59% Of Its Total Value Locked, Plunges Cardano TVL Below $100M




Cardano Founder Charles Hoskinson Criticize SEC Cracking Down on Companies Outside Its Jurisdiction

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Popular Cardano-based decentralized exchange WingRiders has lost its position as the most valuable DEX on Cardano. 

WingRiders slumped from the first position to third after losing more than 59% of the total value locked (TVL) on the platform in the past 30 days. 

At the time of writing this line, WingRiders is now the third-largest DEX by total value locked, with a TVL of $19.66 million. It is noteworthy that WingRiders maintained the top spot for more than two months, claiming  42% of TVL On Cardano. However, the DEX has fallen from glory ever since. 

Minswap Is Now Cardano’s Most Valuable DEX

The development also affected the total value locked on Cardano. The total value locked on Cardano has fallen below $100 million in the last 30 days after the WingRiders TVL slumped. 

cardano total value locked
Cardano total value locked

Interestingly, Minswap has taken the lead to become the most valuable decentralized exchange on Cardano after the massive decline of WingRiders’ TVL. 

At press time, Minswap is leading, with a $49.09 million total value locked on the platform. The DEX hit the milestone after recording a massive growth of 30.9% in its TVL in the past 30 days. Minswap accounts for 51.82% of the total value locked on Cardano. 

SundaeSwap, the first decentralized exchange on Cardano, is now the second most valuable DEX in the ecosystem. SundaeSwap is second in the ranking, with $19.72 million in TVL. 

Like WingRiders, SundaeSwap has also lost a significant amount of its TVL over the past 30 days. In the past month, SundaeSwap has lost nearly 10% of the funds locked on the platform.

Commenting on the development, Cardano Daily, a platform that shares new developments about Cardano, said: 

“After the major decline of @wingriderscom, the TVL scenario of the Cardano ecosystem has stabilized back to normal as we have seen in the past few weeks. @MinswapDEX still led the ecosystem with $51M TVL, contributing 50% of the ecosystem.” 

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